Navaratri (also known as a Navaratri is an Indian Hindu celebration that lasts for nine nights (and 10 days) and is celebrated each year in the fall. The festival is observed for various reasons and is celebrated across the Indian cultural sphere. Theoretically speaking it is believed that there are four seasons of Navaratri. In reality it is the post-monsoon fall festival known as Sharada Navaratri, which is most celebrated in honor of the goddess of femininity Devi ( Durga). The festival is celebrated during the light-colored portion of the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin which usually is observed in the Gregorian months of September and October.
Nomenclature and Etymology
The word Navaratri is a reference to ‘nine nights’ in Sanskrit Navaratri means nine, with nava meaning nine and ratri referring to nights.
Navaratri Celebrations and dates
In the northeastern and eastern states of India in the eastern and northeastern states of India, the Durga pooa is associated with Navaratri in which goddess Durga is defeated over Mahishasur, the buffalo demon to aid in restoring dharma. In southern states where the victory of Durga (or Kali can be identified as Kali. In all instances the main theme is the struggle and the victory of good against evil based on a popular regional epic or legend, such as the Devi Mahatmya.
The celebrations involve worshipping nine goddesses for nine days, stage decoration and a performance of the legend and reenactment of the story and chanting the sacred scriptures from Hinduism. The nine days also serve as an important cultural event, including contests for the design and staging of pandals, family visits to these pandals, as well as the celebration of public the traditional and folk dances of Hindu culture. Hindu devotees typically celebrate Navaratri by the practice of fasting. The day that concludes the festival that is called Vijayadashami the statues are either immersed into the water of an ocean or river, or the symbol of evil is burned by fireworks, symbolizing the end of evil. The festival also starts the preparation for Diwali, the festival of lights, which is celebrated twenty days after Vijayadashami.
According to certain Hindu writings like The Shakta as well as the Vaishnava Puranas Navaratri can be observed twice and four times in a year. Of those of these, it is the Sharada Navaratri near autumn equinox (September-October) is the most popular and the Vasanta Navaratri near the spring the equinox (March-April) can be considered the second most important to the history in that region, the Indian subcontinent. In all instances, Navaratri falls in the light-colored half in the Hindu lunisolar month. The festivities vary according to region, and leave a lot to the individual preferences and creativity of the Hindu.
Sharada Navaratri is one of the most popular among the 4 Navaratri named after Sharada meaning autumn. It begins on the 1st of the day ( pratipada) of the bright fortnight in Ashvini, the moon-lit month. Ashvini. The celebration is held for nine nights every year in this month that typically falls during the Gregorian months of September and October. The precise dates of the festival are decided in accordance with the Hindu lunisolar calendar. occasionally, the festival is celebrated for a longer period or less based on the changes in the moon and sun movements as well as the leap year. In many areas it falls on the day following the harvest in autumn and in other regions the time of harvest.
The celebrations go beyond the goddess Durga and other goddesses, including Saraswati or Lakshmi. Gods like Ganesha, Kartikeya, Shiva as well as Parvati are revered in the region. One example of a Navaratri tradition that is pan-Hindu is the adoration and worship of Saraswati as who is the Hindu goddess of learning, knowledge and music by performing Ayudha puja. On the day that typically is during the Navaratri ninth day peace and knowledge are observed. Warriors bless, decorate and reverence their weapons and offer the prayers of Saraswati. Musicians keep their instruments, play, and even pray their instruments. Farmers carpenters, smiths, pottery makers, shopkeepers and all tradespeople are similarly decorated and praise their machinery, equipment and tools of trade. Students go to their teachers, show respectand ask for their blessings. This custom is especially prevalent within South India, but is widely practiced everywhere too.
More details: Indian New Year’s days and Mesha Sankranti
Chaitra Navaratri is the 2nd most popular Navaratri that is named in honor of Vasanta which is a reference to spring. It’s celebrated in the moon’s month Chaitra (March-April). In some regions the festival occurs in the middle of spring as well as in other regions the harvest season is during. Also, it marks the first holiday in the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which is also called The Hindu Lunar New Year, in accordance with the Vikram Samvat calendar.
Magha Navaratri is celebrated in the moon’s month Magha (January-February). On the fifth day, the festival is usually celebrated in the form of Vasant Panchami (or Basant Panchami The official day of the spring season in Hindu custom, where Goddess Saraswati is honored through art and music, writing along with kite flying. In some areas in some regions, Kama, the Hindu goddess of love Kama has been revered. Magha Navaratri is observed in a regional manner or by individuals.
Ashada Navaratri is observed during the lunar month of Ashadha (June-July) in the monsoon’s beginning season. Ashada Navaratri is observed regionally or by individuals. It is observed by individuals or groups.
The significance of each day
The festival is associated to the prominent battle that took place between Durga and demon the Mahishasura and celebrates the victory of good over evil. These nine days are solely dedicated to Durga and her eight avatars – the Navadurga. Each day is associated to an incarnation of the goddess.
Day 1 – Shailaputri
Also known by the name of Pratipada (first day) the day is closely associated with Shailaputri (“Daughter of the Mountain”) as the incarnation that is a incarnation of the goddess Parvati. It is in this manner that Durga is worshipped for her role as wife to Shiva and is shown riding on the bull Nandi and holding an trishula in her right hand and a lotsus to her left. Shailaputri is believed as the primary manifestation that of Mahakali. The colour for the time is gray that symbolizes movement and vigor. Additionally, she is believed to have been a soul reincarnation Sati (Shiva’s former wife who later became Parvati) as well as called Hemavati.
Day 2 Brahmacharini
In Dwitiya (second Day) On Dwitiya (second day), Goddess Brahmacharini is another version of Parvati is worshipped. In this version, Parvati became Yogini, her virgin self. Brahmacharini is revered as a symbol of moksha or emancipation and the blessing with peace and prosperity. She is depicted as walking with no shoes and holding an japamala (rosary) as well as the kamandala (pot) in her hands, she represents peace and tranquility. Blue is the color of the present day. The color orange, which symbolizes calmness is used in some cases, however powerful energy is everywhere.
Day 3 – Chandraghanta
Tritiya (third day) celebrates the rituals of Chandraghanta Chandraghanta – its name is derived from fact that, after marrying Shiva Parvati, she decorated her forehead with ardhachandra (lit. half moon). She represents beauty, and also a symbol of courage. It is also the colour of third days of the week, which is an energetic color that can boost the mood of anyone.
Day 4 – Kushmanda
The goddess Kushmanda is worshipped during Chaturthi (fourth day). The belief is that she is the source of creativity to the world, Kushmanda is associated with the blessing of plants on earth. Hence the colour that is associated with the season of Chaturthi is Red. The mythology depicts her as having eight arms, and she sits on the back of a Tiger.
Day 5 – Skandamata
Skandamata The goddess who is worshiped by the Hindus on Panchami (fifth day) has been identified as the maternal mother of Skanda (or Kartikeya). The color Royal Blue is symbolic of the transformational strength of the mother as her infant is faced by danger. The image depicts her riding a fierce animal and sporting four arms and holding her child.
Day 6 – Katyayani
A sage named Katyayana is born to her, she is the embodiment to Durga and is said to show courage, which is represented through the colour Yellow. Also known as the goddess of war She is considered to be to be one of the more violent manifestations of Devi. In this version, Katyayani rides as a lion, and she has four hands. She is an avatar from Parvati, Mahalakshmi, Mahasaraswati. She is honored during Shashtami (sixth Day).
Day 7 – Kaalaratri
The most fierce kind that Goddess Durga, Kalaratri is worshipped by the Hindus on Saptami. The belief is that the goddess Parvati shaved off her fair skin in order to defeat her monsters Nisumbha as well as Nisumbha. The colour for the time is Green. The Goddess appears in red-colored attire or tiger skin. She has an abundance of rage her eyes that are fiery, and her skin is black. Red is a symbol of prayers and assures the worshippers that the goddess will safeguard their lives from danger. The Goddess is honored every Saptami (seventh day)
Day 8- Mahagauri
Mahagauri represents peace and intelligence. It is believed that after Kaalaratri had a bath at the Ganga river, she grew very fair due to her darker complexion. The color that is associated with the holiday can be described as Peacock Green which depicts optimism. It is observed by the name of Ashtami (eighth day).
Day 9 : Siddhidatri
The day that ends the festival, which is also called Navami (ninth day) the people offer prayers in adoration of Siddhidhatri. As she sits on her lotus it is believed that she has a lotus and bestows every kind of Siddhis. The hands of the goddess are four. Also called Mahalakshmi The deep purple hue of the day symbolizes an appreciation for the beauty of nature. Siddhidatri represents Parvati who is who is the spouse of the god of love, Lord Shiva. Siddhidhatri is also believed to be Siddhidhatri is also believed to be the Ardhanarishvara version from Shiva or Shakti. The belief is that one part of Shiva’s body is Siddhidatri’s. This is why he is called Ardhanarishwara. According to Vedic texts the Lord Shiva was able to attain all the siddhis through worshipping this goddess.
Navaratri celebrates in various ways across India. Certain people worship various features of Durga and others observe a fast, while others feast. In India, the Chaitra Navaratri culminates in Ram Namami and Sharada Navaratri culminates with Durga Puja along with Vijayadashami. It is celebrated.
The past was when Shakta Hindus used to read the legends of Durga during Chaitra Navaratri, but this custom around the time of the time of the spring equinox is decreasing. For the majority of contemporary Hindus they observe Navaratri on the equinox of autumn which is the most important festival , and also the one celebrated. For Bengali Hindus and to Shakta Hindus out of the eastern and northeastern regions of India The term Navaratri is a reference to Durga Puja which is the warrior goddess form of Devi. In other forms of Hinduism the word Navaratri is a reference to celebrating Durga however in more tranquil forms like Saraswati she is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, education music, and many other arts. According to Nepal, Navaratri is called Dashain It is a major celebration of family and home that honors the bonds among young and old by celebrating Tika Puja as well as between family and community members.
Eastern India, West Bengal and Nepal
Navaratri is known as the Durga Puja celebration within West Bengal. It is the most significant annual festival for Bengali Hindus and a major public and social event in the northeastern and eastern states of India in which it is the center of the spiritual life. The festival is celebrated with thousands of paundals (temporary stages) which are constructed in communal squares, roadsides shrines, and huge Durga temples throughout West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, eastern Nepal, Assam, Tripura and the surrounding regions. It is also observed by some Shakta Hindus as a private, home-based festival. Durga Puja festival marks the victory of the goddess Durga in the battle against the shape-shifting, deceptive, and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura.
The festival is celebrated with Mahalaya an occasion on which Shakta Hindus remember the loved people who have passed away and also celebrate the birth of the goddess of battle, Durga. The following significant date during Durga Puja is Shashthi and is when people in the community celebrate Durga as the Goddess Durga and celebrations of the festival are officially launched. The seventh (Saptami) 8th (Ashtami) and 9th (Navami) holiday, Durga, along with Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha and Kartikeya are worshipped. These days are the time of the main Puja (worship) that is celebrated through the recitations of the scriptures and legends about Durga as told in the Devi Mahatmya as well as family visits for temples as well as pandals. On the tenth of the day, called Vijayadashami an elaborate procession takes place in which ceramic statues depicting Durga are carried in a ceremonial procession through a stream or coast to say goodbye in a solemn way. Many people decorate face in Vermilion ( sindooram) or dress in red. It’s an emotionally charged day for certain devotees and the congregation sings tearful goodbye songs. After the parade, Hindus offer sweets and gifts to spend time with their relatives and friends members. Then, they visit their loved ones.
It is believed that in North India, Navaratri is highlighted by the numerous Ramlila occasions, during which scenes from the tale about Rama as well as Ravana can be performed by groups of artists in urban and rural areas in temples, as well as in temporary stage structures. The Hindu tradition of celebrating with performance arts was recognized by UNESCO as an “Intangible Culture Heritages of the Humanity” in 2008. The celebrations according to UNESCO includes music that include narration, recital, and dialogues based on the Hindu Text Ramcharitmanas composed by Tulsidas. Particularly notable are the historically significant Hindu cities like Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna and Madhubani cities of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
The event and the dramatic reenactment of the story is arranged by the communities of hundreds of towns and villages and towns, which attracts a variety of audience members from various gender, social. as well as economic background. There are many places where people from the community and audience are invited to join in and take part spontaneously and assist the artists as they setting up, making makeup as well as effigies and lights.
Navaratri is an important festival of rituals for the military and kings of the kingdom. In the final days of Navaratri celebration, it is Dussehra which is when the idols of Ravana, Kumbhakarna, and Indrajit are burned to commemorate the triumph of the good (Rama) in battle against the evil forces.
In addition in this religious celebration the goddess Durga’s battle against evil and deceit is celebrated. A pot is placed (ghatasthapana) in a sacred spot in your home. A lamp is kept burning inside the vessel for nine consecutive days. The pot is a symbol of the universe and the unending burning lamp is a symbol of Durga.
In some parts in Bihar, Durga is revered in the autumn months of Navaratri. Pandals of all kinds are produced. In Bihar, Durga is worshipped alongside Lakshmi, Saraswati, Kartikey, and Ganesha. In other areas, such as Sitamarhi near close to the Nepal border, spring Navaratri draws a huge Rama Navami celebration that marks that the birth of Lord Rama. It is the biggest trade fair for cattle and draws an extensive handicraft market that includes pottery, kitchenware and householdware and traditional clothes. Celebrations and performances are celebrated in The local Hindu temple, which is dedicated to Sita, Hanuman, Durga as well as Ganesha.
Navaratri In Gujarat is among the main festivals in Gujarat. The customary celebrations involve the practice of fasting for a whole day, or even partially fasting every day by eating no grains or eating liquid food in honor of the nine characteristics from Shakti goddess. The prayers are devoted to a clay vessel known as garbo to remember the memory of the womb that created the family and the universe. It is lit and it is believed to be a symbol of the single Atman (soul, self).
In Gujarat and other nearby Hindu communities like Malwa in the state of Malwa, the significance of the garbo is celebrated through the performance arts during all nine days. The most well-known is the group dances known as Garba with live orchestra as well as seasonal ragas or devotional music. It is a dance from the folk tradition in which people from various backgrounds and skill levels join to create concentric circles. The circles can expand or shrink, forming groups that include hundreds or thousands of people performing a series of circular motions in traditional attire. The garba dance may involve the use of dandiyas (sticks) and choreographed movements, strikes of sticks among the dancers and the flirting between the genders. After dancing the group and crowd eat and socialize together. Locally the same celebration of the community’s songs along with music as well as dances, on Navaratri is known as garbi. The garbi celebration is a social event that involves food, music, and dance.
The temples in Goa in Goa, on Day 1 of Ashwin, the Hindu month Ashwin, a copper pot that is surrounded by clay is erected in the sanctum sanctorum of the Devi as well as Krishna temples. Inside, nine kinds of cereal grains have been arranged. These nine days are celebrated with prayers and religious ceremonies. Artists are invited to perform traditional musical instruments. The celebrations involve placing Durga’s face in a specially decorated and bright silver swing, referred to in the region of Makhar, and during every night of the nine she will be swinging to the beat of the temple (called by the name of the ranavadya). This is known locally as Makharotsav.
The night before the Goa Navaratri festival is a significant celebration known as makhar arti. makhar arti. There are 58
The state of Karnataka, Navaratri is celebrated in the home and through the lighting of Hindu temples, sites of culture as well as many grand procession. It is also known locally as Dasara as is the official celebration ( Nadahabba) of Karnataka. There are many celebrations to celebrate that are celebrated, Mysuru Dasara festival is an important one. It is well-known for its celebrations.
The present Dasara celebrations in Mysore can be believed to be due with the work of The king Raja Wodeyar I in 1610. In the 9th holiday of Dasara which is also known as Mahanavami, the sword of the royal family is revered and carried in a parade of decorated horses and elephants. Additionally, Ayudha Puja is dedicated to Saraswati the goddess of war, and military personnel maintain their weapons, and families maintain their livelihood tools and offer a prayer to Saraswati and also Parvati and Lakshmi. The day following Navaratri and on Vijayadashami the customary Dasara procession takes place in street corners of Mysore. The image of Goddess Chamundeshwari is placed on a gold-colored horse ( hauda) on the back of an elephant, and then taken to a parade, which is accompanied by dance groups and music groups, as well as decorated horses, elephants, and even camels.
An additional Navaratri custom in Karnataka has been to decorate the interior of one’s residence with art-related dolls, also known as the Gombe and Bombe which are similar to Dolls called Golu from Tamil Nadu. The art-themed Gaarudi Gombe that features folk dances that include the dolls, is an integral part of the festivities.
The state of Kerala Three day (Ashtami, Navami, and Vijayadashami) of Sharada Navaratri are observed as Sarasvati Puja , in which the book is venerated. The books are set aside in the midst of Puja at Ashtami in their homes or traditional nursery schools and in the temples. When it comes to Vijayadashami the books are read and then used for writing following the worship of Sarasvati. Vijayadashami is believed to be a significator of instilling children into writing and reading. It is also known as Vidyarambham.
The Vidyarambham day ceremony begins with the child or baby lying on the back of an older person, such as the grandfather, with the images that depict Saraswati as well as Ganesha. An elder will write a note while the kid writes it by using his or her index finger.
Navaratri celebrations differ across Maharashtra in Maharashtra. The rituals are different across regions, even though they’re referred to as the same and are dedicated to the same god. The most well-known celebration starts with the day that is first of Navaratri with Ghatasthapana that literally refers to “mounting of the jar”. The day of Navaratri is the day when the rural families place a brass or copper container, which is filled up with water on the rice heap placed on a stool (pat). The jar is often placed alongside in conjunction with other agricultural symbols, like the turmeric root, the fruits of the mango tree coconut, and other major food grain (usually with eight different varieties). The lamp is lit to symbolize the knowledge of the household and prosperity and is kept lit throughout each night during Navaratri. The jar is a symbol of prosperity and knowledge.
The family is worshipped by during the nine-day period, providing rituals and a garland of leaves, flowers dried-fruits, fruits, and so on. along with the naivedya. nonchalant attitude along with water to encourage the seeds to sprout. A few families also celebrate Kali puja on the days 1 and 2. Laxmi puja in the days of 3 4, 5, and Saraswati puja on the days 7, 6 9 and Ghatasthapana. The eighth day an “Yajna” also known as “Hom” is performed in honor for Goddess Durga. The ninth day the Ghat ritual is carried out in the Ghat. Ghat is taken down after removing the leaves that have sprouted from grain. [ Citation neededIt is necessary to cite the source.
The goddess Lalita is revered during the 5th day of this festival. On the ninth day of the festival men worship with every kind of tool such as weapons, vehicles and other productive instrumentation.
Navaratri is a long-standing tradition in Tamil Nadu, with Lakshmi, Saraswati, and Durga goddesses being the main focus. Similar to the other regions of India Navaratri has also been an occasion for the performance arts, specifically Hindu temple dances, such as Bharatanatyam as well as Mohiniyattam. The major palaces, community centers as well as historic temples contain dance halls. For instance one of them is the Padmanabhapuram Palace built in the 1600s CE was home to a huge dance hall that was intricately built pillars that were constructed entirely from stone. The hall of dance has traditionally been referred to as Navaratri Mantapa. It is believed that the Navaratri Mantapa celebrations are celebrated in the year The celebrations commence with Vedic singing to begin the dances, as well as other rituals. Additionally, other Tamil Hindu temples, such as those that are associated to Sri Vaishnavism, are also celebrating the Navaratri celebrations.
Another important Tamil tradition is that of celebrating of the festival using the Golu dolls (also known as the word “Gollu”). They include gods, goddesses and animals birds, and the rural world each in miniature. The people have their own imaginative themes for their homes. known as Kolu Families and friends invite one another to go to their houses to take a look at Kolu displaysand give gifts and sweets. The tradition can be not only found in other regions that are part of South India such as Andhra Pradesh in which it is known as Bommala Koluvu as well as Karnataka in Karnataka, where it is known as Gombe Habba (or Gombe totti. The evidence of Gombe totti as the basis for a Hindu celebration of artisanal arts dates back to at least the 14th century of the Vijayanagara Empire. The evening of Vijayadashami the doll belonging to that “Kolu” will be symbolically placed to rest and it is believed that the Kalasa is moved toward the North to commemorate the conclusion of the Navaratri Kolu. The family prays of thanks and concludes the show. Citation neededIt is believed that the Kolu tradition originated in India.
In temples in Tamil Nadu, Navaratri is celebrated to honor Durga’s presence in every temple. In temples, decorations are made, ritual candles are lit and Vedic singing is performed. The priests and other visitors to the temples are often wearing an exclusive yellow-colored “promise of protection” thread on their wrists, known as the kappu (Tamil) as well as the raksha bandhana (Sanskrit). It is believed to represent an offering to the goddess and also protection from bad things.
The state of Telangana, Navaratri is celebrated just like in the other parts of India and concludes with Dasara. On Navaratri evenings, a prominent Telangana tradition is Telugu Hindu women who produce Bathukamma to honor Navaratri goddesses. It is a creative floral display with a focus on marigolds that are a symbol of three distinct aspects of Devi, also known as Tridevi. The year was 2016, and 9,292 ladies were involved in the creation of 20-foot high flower arrangement which was the biggest festive flower arrangements.
Bathukamma Celebrations begin with Mahalaya Amavasya (Pitru Amavasya) on the day prior to when Navaratri commences. The most important god to be worshiped is the goddess Gowri who is a type that of the Goddess Durga and she is represented with an idol made of turmeric powder. It is then set in a floral arrangement known as bathukamma. The festival runs for nine days with women who dance around the bathukamma and clapping their hands or sticks and singing in songs from the Ramayana as well as stories about Shiva, Gowri, Ganga, and the everyday lives of women, in the form of beats. Each night, the bathukamma is submerged in the nearby water sources and a new bathukamma constructed the following day. The nine nights of celebration ends by Durgashtami in which Durga was believed to have been worshipped as Maha Gowri. [ Needed citationIt is believed that Maha Gowri is the goddess of water.
Similar to other parts of India, Ayudha Puja is celebrated in the presence of Telangana Hindus where weapons are kept in good condition, decorated and revered. Farmers and tradesmen alike clean, decorate, and honor their own tools of trade. On the 10th dayof Dussehra ( Vijayadashami) grand celebrations are planned together with family and friends.
Animal sacrifice is a component of the Durga Puja celebrations held during Navaratri within the states in eastern India. The goddess is offered a sacrificial animal in this ritual in the belief that it stimulates her violent vengeance against the buffalo demon. According to Christopher Fuller, the animal sacrifice practice is rare among Hindus during Navaratri, or at other times, outside the Shaktism tradition found in the eastern Indian states of West Bengal, Odisha, and Assam. Even in these states, the festival season is one where significant animal sacrifices are observed. In some Shakta Hindu communities, the slaying of the buffalo demon and the victory of Durga are observed with a symbolic sacrifice instead of animal sacrifice.
It is believed that the Rajput of Rajasthan revere their horses and weapons on Navaratri and used to offer an animal sacrifice to a goddess whose name is Kuldevi which persists in some places. The ritual demands killing the animal with one stroke. The past was when this ceremony was believed to be a sign of manhood and the ability to be an experienced warrior. The Kuldevi is one of the Rajput communities is a warrior-pativrata-protection goddess, with legends from the local community invoking her reverence in the Rajput-Muslim wars.
The practice of sacrifices to animals is being replaced with vegetarian offerings to Goddesses in temples and homes in the vicinity of Banaras within Northern India.
The Hindu diaspora who emigrated in the form of servitude-based indentured slaves in the colonial era to mines and plantations across the globe in addition to individuals who emigrated independently were still able to commemorate their Navaratri customs. Tamil Hindus in Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, for example, built Hindu temples in southeast Asia in the 19th century, and Navaratri has been one of their major traditional festivals. In Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Fiji, Mauritius, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, Navaratri and Diwali have been one of the most visible celebrations of the local Hindu communities from about mid 20th-century.
Navaratri and goddess worship are included in the historical Sikhism writings and is particularly mentioned on the Dasam Granth which is traditionally believed to be the work of Guru Gobind Singh. As per Louis Fenech, the Sikhs have always reflected the respect for Devi Shakthi as well as the rituals of worshiping weapons in a similar way to the Shakta Hindus. Another Guru in Sikhism, Guru Angad, was a fervent lover of Goddess Durga prior to getting to know Guru Nanak and joining Sikhism.
The Jains have been observing the cultural and social celebrations of Navaratri together with Hindus including the traditional folk dances. They also perform the stavan poetry of Jainism is said to M. Whitney Kelting, “draw the majority of their imagery from Garba poem” that are part of Hinduism. The garba poems of Hinduism are a major source.
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